Pear

  •  The probable origin of the Pyrus genus is mountainous China.
  •  From there it moved to East and West and in the different ecological conditions, the evolution would have taken place.
  •  Pear is next to apple in the temperate fruits.
  •  It is a rich source of carbohydrate as sugars, starch and cellulose and minerals like calcium (8 mg/100g) phosphorous (15mg/100g) and sulphur (14mg/100g).

Climatic and soil requirements:

  •  Pear is adapted to a wide range to climatic condition from as low as

    –26oC (in dormancy) and as high as 45oC (in growing period).

  •  However most of the pear cultivars require about 1200 hours below 7oC during winter to complete their chilling requirement in order to flower and fruit to a satisfactory level.
  •  However after bud break, at blossoming and fruiting phase, below freezing temperature will affect the crop severely.
  •  Because of its tolerance to wide range of climate and soil, it is grown both in temperate and subtropical conditions.
  •  In the tropical belt pear can be grown at an elevation of 1300-2100 M above sea level.
  •  Deep, well drained, fertile, medium textured clayey loam soil is the bet for pears.
  •  A neutral pH range of 6.0-7.5 will be ideal.
  •  A minimum soil depth of 180 cm is required.
  •  When compared to apple, pear is less tolerant to drought but more tolerant to wet soils.

VARIETIES:

  •  Pear cultivars can be classified in to 3 groups viz., European types, Asian types and the hybrids of European and Asian types.
  •  The Asian types (oriental pears) are mainly derived from Pyrus pyrifolia, Pyrus ussuriensis or their hybrids.
  •  The European types are derived from Pyrus communis.

European types (Tail pears) Bartlett (or) William’s Pear

  •  It is the most popular commercial cultivar throughout the world (except Chin & Japan).
  •  It requires more chilling hours (1500 hrs) for bud break and flowering.
  •  The fruit is ovate pyriform, medium large, green at the time of harvest turning to bright yellow after ripening.
  •  Flesh is white, melting, firm and juicy.
  •  It has originated in England.
  •  High yielding clones like Bartlett Improved I, Verona-25, Ferrera have been identified.

Anjou:

  •  Originated in France.
  •  It is fairly resistant to very low temperature and fire blight.
  •  Large fruit, skin bright green when harvest and turning to greenish yellow on ripening.
  •  Flesh is fine, mildly acidic.
  •  Fruits have high dessert quality and very long keeping quality.

Flemish Beauty:

  •  The trees are bigger with more branches.
  •  Fruit is large obovate and smooth.
  •  The flesh is pure white, very juicy free of grit cells.
  •  It is a self-fruitful variety.
  •  It can also be used a good pollenizing cultivar.

Max Red Bartlett:

  •  A bud mutant of Bartlett; plants and fruits resemble parent except that the fruit colour is dark cranberry red and shoots and leaves have a reddish tinge.
  •  ‘Moonglow’ and ‘Magness’ are two fire blight resistant varieties evolved in USA, Flesh is free from grit cells.

Jorgonelle:

  •  It is an European type with superior quality and adapted to South Indian Hills like Kodaikanal (warm winter conditions).

Starcrimson:

  •  Trees are medium sized fairly upright and spreading, Fruits medium sized, oblong ovate, pyriform, dark red change to attractive Crimson red in cold storage.
  •  Flesh cream white, moderately juicy, aromatic, high in TSS, sweet with excellent eating quality.

Early China

  •  Trees are upright and compact.
  •  Fruits round, small, greenish with red blush and very attractive.
  •  Asian types and Hybrids (common pears)

Kieffer:

  •  It is well adapted to different climatic conditions and moderately resistant to fire blight.
  •  The fruit is brownish, gritty and hard.
  •  It is a self unfruitful variety.

Gola:

  •  It is found to be suitable for lower altitude.
  •  Fruits are large, round and possess excellent keeping quality.
  •  Hence it is suitable for long distance transport.

Le Conte:

  •  Suitable for lower aremid hills as its chilling require-ment is low.
  •  Fruits are round in shape, small in size, yellowish green in colour.
  •  But it is a blight susceptible variety.

Patharnakh:

  •  his is another low chilling variety.
  •  Tolerant to very high temperature and hot winds.
  •  It possesses a peculiar quality combination of drought tolerance as well as tolerance to water logged condition.
  •  Fruits are round with prominent dots.
  •  Fruits have tough skin and hence suited for long distance transport.

Propagation:

  •  Pears are commercially propagated by shield or ‘T’ budding and also by whip and tongue grafting.
  •  The root-stocks are raised from the seeds of commercial pear varieties.
  •  A number of F1 hybrids of Pyrus communis such as Old Home x Farmingdale are multiplied clonally and used as rootstock.
  •  Quince (Cydonia oblonga) is another related genus which shows very good compatibility with a number of commercial cultivars and it is resistant to wooly aphids, nematodes but susceptible to Oak rooto fungus, fire blight, cold and excess of lime in soil.
  •  Quince clones are easily propagated by semihardwood and softwood cuttings.
  •  Some of the commercially used clones of quince are QA, QB, QC.
  •  But commercial cultivars of pear like pear Bartlett, Bosc, Eldorado need ‘Old Home’ as interstock as they don’t have compatibility with Quince.
  •  The chilled scions of Doyenne du comice grafted at 1.0 m height on 1.0m long shoots of Pant pear –18 stock found to be the best for higher fruit yield and quality.

Preparation of Field and planting:

  •  One year ahead of planting, the field should be prepared by removing stems and roots of previous trees and shrubs, leveled giving a gentle slope for drainage of excess water during heavy rains.
  •  For a crop on its own rootstock (pear), an initial spacing of 3 m x 2 m is given which is changed to 6 m x 4m after 4-5 years.
  •  For pear on Quince, a planting distance of 3.5 m x 1.1 m is enough since quince he has the effect of dwarfing the trees.
  •  The pit size should be 1m x 1m x 1m and the pits are filled with a mixture of soil and compost.
  •  The planting can be taken up during late fall or early spring.
  •  Immediately after planting the basin should be formed and irrigated.

Training and pruning:

  •  Pears are trained in a number of systems like pine shaped, pyramid, spindle, palmette and trellis.
  •  Among these, palette system and tatura trellis are found to be commercially superior.
  •  In tature trellis, the rows are oriented North-South.
  •  Each tree is topped to develop two arms to from ‘Y’ shape in East – West direction within 50o-600 crotch angle.
  •  Tensioned wires on steel frames support the arms to a height of 4-5 M and the branches on each arm are trained on each arm are trained on these trellises.
  •  Bearings trees are pruned by combining heading back and thinning out.
  •  Pear bears fruit bud on spurs arising on two year old wood and a spur continues to bear for more than six years.

Manures and manuring:

  •  An optimum dose of major nutrients is 600g N, 150 g P and 300g K er tree to get the maximum yield.
  •  Normally in pears, the response to P and K can be seen only in soils of low availability of P&K.
  •  At higher altitudes where soil pH will be less than7, the ‘P’ will not be available.
  •  Similarly, when the soil pH is more than 7 (alkaline condition) too, the ‘P’ availability will be less.
  •  Under these conditions, application of additional ‘P’ will increase the yield.
  •  Nitrogen @60g/tree in two splits (2/3rd in January and 1/3rd in May) along with a basal dressing of 40g each of phosphorus and potash was potash was found the best in Bagugosha cultivar of low-chilli pear.

Harvest, yield and storage:

  •  Fully mature fruits are harvested while still firm and green for distant market.
  •  Fort local market, they are left on the trees to get better quality fruits.
  •  At an interval of 3-4 days, two or three pickings are taken up.
  •  Fruits should be carefully handled while storage and transit as the bruising is possible by rubbing with one another as well as stalk damage.
  •  From a well-maintained orchard an yield of 30 – 40 tonnes/ha/year can be expected.
  •  The unripe fruits harvested at optimum maturity can be stored for even 5 months at a temperature of –1oC.
  •  Ripening can be accomplished by keeping at 15 to 21 and 21 to 25oC and 80-85% RH in 3-6 days depending on the cultivar.
  •  Most of the commercial cultivars require this post harvest chilling treatment for proper ripening.
  •  When such post harvest chilling treatment for proper ripening.
  •  When such post harvest chilling treatment for proper ripening.
  •  When such post harvest cold treatment are not available, the fruits can be treated with ethylene, so that they ripen properly and get good quality (both taste and colour).
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