Care and Management of Ram, Ewe and Lamb Nutrition – small ruminants
Goat: Browsing – selective feeding of
- Tender twigs and leaves – not available for other species.
- Wider feed acceptability.
- High crude fibre digestibility
- Consuming more dry matter/unit body weight
- High convertibility: 45-71% , cow: 38%
- Capable of thriving on bushes, shrubs, herbs, tree foliage and tree leaves.
- Highly prehensile tongue and mobile upper lip.
- Small in size – split feeding is essential
- Faster passage and fermentation rate
- To certain extract withstand toxic alkaloids
Sheep: Grazing – better thrive -on stubble after harvest
- Highly resistant- water deprivation.
- Bifid upper lip.
- Consideration for fleece.
Model Concentrate Mixture
- Protein feeding during pre-ruminant stage
- Tree fodder
- Emergency fodder
- Rich in calcium
- Low in fibre when compared to grasses.
- Rich in tannin
- Pasture: Poor in quality
- Mixture of legumes and non-legumes best.
- Rich in nutrients
- High voluntary intake
- Enrichment of soil
- Carrying capacity:
- 1/unprotected pasture
- 2-5/protected pasture
- 40/ cultivated pasture
- Rotational grazing
- Colostrum feeding
- Milk feeding
- Milk replacer
- Creep mixture
- Protein-rich concentrate from 2nd week of life up to 3 months of age, with restricted suckling for better growth and early maturity and marketing.
- 4 – 5 times a day
- 60-80 gm gain/day – smaller breed
- 100 – 140 gm gain/day – larger breed.
- Maize: 60%
- GNC: 20%
- Fishmeal : 10% DCP: 18%
- Wheat Bran: 7% TDN: 70-80%
- Mineral Mixture: 2%
- Salt: 1%
- Vitamin mixture: 25 gm
- Extra feeding for early-weaned, orphaned, and mates of multiple litters.
Fattening young ones:
- Concentrate: Roughage ratio varies with market need
- Lean carcass: 30-40% roughage
- fatty carcass: 20 – 25 % roughage
- Replacement stocks:
- For early maturity, good quality roughage and concentrate
- 250 – 400 gm with 10-12% DcP and 65-70% TDN.
- Natural flushing Extra feeding just before breeding season – body weight
- Over feeding – early onset of breeding activities fatty deposition synchronized.
- Poor breeding – Increased ovulation rate effective in poorly fed animals
- Increased conception
- Multiple births
- Better weaning.
Management of breedable males.
- Breeding allowed at the age of 18months.
- 25-30 females/male initially – 40-60 / Matured male
- Females / beyond 2 years of age.
- Criss crossing of age groups for better breeding
- Extra males during synchronization
- Controlled access to females
- Flock mating
- Pen mating
- Hand mating
- Exercise in paddocks/range land otherwise – slow breeding.
- Teaser maintenance
- Marking of male’s brisket and breast.
- Changing of individual once in 2 years to avoid inbreeding. 10.Culling – Poor breeder, Extra feeding, infertile, deformed, aged.
Extra breeding just before and during breeding season.
- Avoiding adipose tissue deposition.
- Periodical grooming
- Periodical evaluation of semen.
- Protection against parasitic infestation and infectious diseases.
Management of female stock
- Oestrus Signs: 18 – 21 days: 30 –40 hrs.
- Tail wagging
- Mucous discharge
- Frequent urination
- Swollen vulva
Mating: at second day of oestrous
- Breeding performed – to receive young ones in favourable season
- Mating by 14 –15 months of age u0026amp; once in 8 months.
- Synchronization of oestrus– Telescoping.
- Artificial Insemination
- Embryo transfer technology.
- Pregnant females: 148 ± 3 days.
- Isolation – diagnosed by 2½ – 3 months of age.
- Quality feeding
- Pregnant Animals: During last 1/3rd period 70-80% of growth of foetus so better care is needed.
- Good quality legumes and concentrate to support foetal growth.
- To make up loss in previous lactation
- To maintain reserve for ensuing lactation.
- To meet their own growth.
- Poor feeding – Low birth weight – poor survivability
- Lactating ones. – low voluntary intake – not sufficient
- So reserve during pregnancy created – to meet out peak lactation.
- Male – Extra feeding just 40 days prior to breeding season to maintain better libido and fertility.
- fattiness should be avoided.
- Based on breeding records.
- Udder engorgement
- Relaxed perineum
- Isolation – fussy in nature
- Care during prolonged time – Dystocia – Due to disproportionate mating
- Avoid too much handling to avoid abandoning
- Watch for shedding of placenta and avoid placenta eating.
- Provide laxative diet – roughage during peripartum to avoid udder stress.
- Lactating females: Special Nutrition: Avoiding buck odour
- Hoof trimming, Weaning, proper udder care.
- Culling: Poor breeder, poor mothers, irregular breeders, aged beyond 7 years of age.
Management of young ones.
- Starts in pregnancy itself
a) By extra feeding,
b)Deworming and vaccination
- Birth in clean environment
- Cleaning of mucous from all over the body -induce licking by dams.
- Care of Navel cord – to avoid naval ill and joint ill.
- Resuscitation for breathing
- Colostrum feeding within 15 – 30 minutes.
- Weighing and identification
- Fostering: milk feeding for individuals of a large litter, orphaned young ones -early weaned.
weak Young ones
I. 1/6th Birth weight
II. 1/8th Birth weight
III. 1/10th Birth weight
- Concentrate and roughage from 2nd week onwards.
- Well ventilated shed.
- Isolation during early stage along with dam for better growth and to avoid licking each other
- During winter – heat supplementation
- Creep ration: high-quality concentrate containing animal protein sources.
- High-Quality concentrate containing animal protein sources.
- Periodical weighing and culling.
- Periodical deworming, vaccination and deticking.
- Separation of sexes by 3 months of age.
- Castration of marketable male kids.
- Disbudding – sometimes.
- Marketing by 6-9 months of age.
- Docking of lambs – to avoid blowfly infestation.
|GNC||: 15 %|
|Mineral Mixture||: 2%|
|Salt||: 1 %|