Care and Management of Ram, Ewe and Lamb

Care and Management of Ram, Ewe and Lamb Nutrition – small ruminants

Uniqueness

Goat: Browsing – selective feeding of

  1. Tender twigs and leaves – not available for other species.
  2. Wider feed acceptability.
  3. High crude fibre digestibility
  4. Consuming more dry matter/unit body weight
  5. High convertibility: 45-71% , cow: 38%
  6. Capable of thriving on bushes, shrubs, herbs, tree foliage and tree leaves.
  7. Highly prehensile tongue and mobile upper lip.
  8. Small in size – split feeding is essential
  9. Faster passage and fermentation rate
  10. To certain extract withstand toxic alkaloids

Sheep: Grazing – better thrive -on stubble after harvest

  1. Highly resistant- water deprivation.
  2. Bifid upper lip.
  3. Consideration for fleece.

Model Concentrate Mixture

YoungGrowerAdult
Maize603036
GNC203021
Fishmeal10
Molasses7
Bran73040
Mineral Mixture222
Salt111

Feeding schedule

General considerations

  1. Protein feeding during pre-ruminant stage
  2. Tree fodder
    1. Emergency fodder
    2. Rich in calcium
    3. Low in fibre when compared to grasses.
    4. Rich in tannin
  3. Pasture: Poor in quality
  4. Mixture of legumes and non-legumes best.
  5. Rich in nutrients
  6. High voluntary intake
  7. Enrichment of soil
  8. Carrying capacity:
  9. 1/unprotected pasture
  10. 2-5/protected pasture
  11. 40/ cultivated pasture
  12. Rotational grazing

Young ones:

  1. Colostrum feeding
  2. Milk feeding
  3. Milk replacer
  4. Creep mixture
  • Protein-rich concentrate from 2nd week of life up to 3 months of age, with restricted suckling for better growth and early maturity and marketing.
  • 4 – 5 times a day
  • 60-80 gm gain/day – smaller breed
  • 100 – 140 gm gain/day – larger breed.

Composition:

  • Maize: 60%
  • GNC: 20%
  • Fishmeal : 10% DCP: 18%
  • Wheat Bran: 7% TDN: 70-80%
  • Mineral Mixture: 2%
  • Salt: 1%
  • Antibiotics
  • Vitamin mixture: 25 gm
  • Extra feeding for early-weaned, orphaned, and mates of multiple litters.

Fattening young ones:

  • Concentrate: Roughage ratio varies with market need
  • Lean carcass: 30-40% roughage
  • fatty carcass: 20 – 25 % roughage
  • Replacement stocks:
  • For early maturity, good quality roughage and concentrate
  • 250 – 400 gm with 10-12% DcP and 65-70% TDN.

Breedable females:

Flushing:

  • Natural flushing Extra feeding just before breeding season – body weight
  • Over feeding – early onset of breeding activities fatty deposition synchronized.
  • Poor breeding – Increased ovulation rate effective in poorly fed animals
    • Increased conception
    • Multiple births
    • Better weaning.

Management of breedable males.

  1. Selection
  2. Breeding allowed at the age of 18months.
    • 25-30 females/male initially – 40-60 / Matured male
    • Females / beyond 2 years of age.
  3. Criss crossing of age groups for better breeding
  4. Extra males during synchronization
  5. Controlled access to females
  6. Flock mating
  7. Pen mating
  8. Hand mating
  9. Exercise in paddocks/range land otherwise – slow breeding.
  10. Teaser maintenance
  11. Marking of male’s brisket and breast.
  12. Changing of individual once in 2 years to avoid inbreeding. 10.Culling – Poor breeder, Extra feeding, infertile, deformed, aged.

Extra breeding just before and during breeding season.

  1. Avoiding adipose tissue deposition.
  2. Periodical grooming
  3. Periodical evaluation of semen.
  4. Protection against parasitic infestation and infectious diseases.
  5. Disbudding.

Management of female stock

  1. Selection
  2. Breeding:

Regular:

  • Oestrus Signs: 18 – 21 days: 30 –40 hrs.
  • Tail wagging
  • Mucous discharge
  • Frequent urination
  • Swollen vulva
  • Bleating.

Mating: at second day of oestrous

  1. Breeding performed – to receive young ones in favourable season
  2. Mating by 14 –15 months of age u0026amp; once in 8 months.

Flushing –

Repeat Breeder

  1. Synchronization of oestrus– Telescoping.
  2. Artificial Insemination
  3. Embryo transfer technology.
    • Pregnant females: 148 ± 3 days.
    • Isolation – diagnosed by 2½ – 3 months of age.
    • Quality feeding
    • Exercise
    • Pregnant Animals: During last 1/3rd period 70-80% of growth of foetus so better care is needed.
    • Good quality legumes and concentrate to support foetal growth.
      • To make up loss in previous lactation
      • To maintain reserve for ensuing lactation.
      • To meet their own growth.
    • Poor feeding – Low birth weight – poor survivability
      • Pregnancy toxaemia
    • Lactating ones. – low voluntary intake – not sufficient
    • So reserve during pregnancy created – to meet out peak lactation.
    • Male – Extra feeding just 40 days prior to breeding season to maintain better libido and fertility.
    • fattiness should be avoided.

Parturient animals.

  1. Based on breeding records.
  2. Udder engorgement
  3. Relaxed perineum
  4. Isolation – fussy in nature
  5. Care during prolonged time – Dystocia – Due to disproportionate mating
  6. Avoid too much handling to avoid abandoning
  7. Watch for shedding of placenta and avoid placenta eating.
  8. Provide laxative diet – roughage during peripartum to avoid udder stress.
  9. Lactating females: Special Nutrition: Avoiding buck odour
    • Hoof trimming, Weaning, proper udder care.
    • Culling: Poor breeder, poor mothers, irregular breeders, aged beyond 7 years of age.

Management of young ones.

  1. Starts in pregnancy itself

    a) By extra feeding,

    b)Deworming and vaccination

  2. Birth in clean environment
  3. Cleaning of mucous from all over the body -induce licking by dams.
  4. Care of Navel cord – to avoid naval ill and joint ill.
  5. Resuscitation for breathing
  6. Colostrum feeding within 15 – 30 minutes.
  7. Weighing and identification
  8. Fostering: milk feeding for individuals of a large litter, orphaned young ones -early weaned.

weak Young ones

I.  1/6th Birth weight

II. 1/8th Birth weight

III. 1/10th Birth weight

  • Concentrate and roughage from 2nd week onwards.
  1. Well ventilated shed.
  2. Isolation during early stage along with dam for better growth and to avoid licking each other
  3. During winter – heat supplementation
  4. Creep ration: high-quality concentrate containing animal protein sources.
  5. High-Quality concentrate containing animal protein sources.
  6. Periodical weighing and culling.
  7. Periodical deworming, vaccination and deticking.
  8. Separation of sexes by 3 months of age.
  9. Castration of marketable male kids.
  10.  Disbudding – sometimes.
  11. Marketing by 6-9 months of age.
  12. Exercise
  13. Docking of lambs – to avoid blowfly infestation.

 

 

Creep ration
Grains: 60%
GNC: 15 %
Fishmeal: 7%
Bras: 15%
Mineral Mixture: 2%
Salt: 1 %
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